Figure 1.0 A line project manager leading an e2e project
Executives quickly realize (some after repeated failure) that existing project managers that reside in line functions are limited in their ability and knowledge to deliver initiatives that run e2e. The various models that are available include the following.
Line project managers to run e2e initiatives
The problem associated with line project managers delivering e2e initiatives is that they possess deep knowledge about their function but run into difficulties when they work in other domains. Additionally, such project managers always suffer from a personality/credibility image and employees in other functions do not take them seriously. For instance, commercial project managers may be apt at ensuring that functions such as products, marketing, sales, legal, etc. are provided with not only the requisite support but also fall in line when required. However, such project managers struggle when dealing with IT, as they do not understand the technical parlance, possess the skills to challenge IT staff, or are even familiar with the working of the internal IT departments with its myriad of vendors. Conversely, similar issues are found with IT project managers. Hence, project delivery becomes fragmented and the overall project experience for the executive team suffers.
Depending on the nature of the project, a common remedy is to appoint two project managers, with one taking the lead and the other providing support. In some companies, the supporting project manager is also referred to as the subject matter expert or SME. This is shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Line project manager supported by a functional project manager in delivering an e2e project
However, this type of arrangement is fraught with leadership issues and project teams can easily become fractured by taking sides with one of the two project managers, thereby jeopardizing the delivery times of the project and potentially leading to further stoppages.
Other companies may seek to bolster the abilities of their line project managers by providing them with extra project management training as well as domain-specific skills. This process can be painstakingly slow and depends upon the maturity of the organization, its budgets and time.
Centralized pool of project managers to deliver e2e initiatives
Another way of delivering e2e initiatives is to establish and nurture a small pool of dedicated e2e project managers who are well versed with all the domains of the corporate business and have excellent project management skills. The centralized e2e pool of project managers should reside within the executive program management office (EPMO) and have the support of the executive team. Figure 1.2 depicts the organizational structure of the project hierarchy.
Figure 1.2 E2e project manager leading the project team
The main advantage of this approach is the perceived neutrality of the e2e project manager, as he or she is viewed as unaligned with a particular department. This, together with the support of the executive team, becomes indispensable in building crosss-functional project teams. Nevertheless, it can be argued that such an approach can take accountability away from the line functions and any failure will be quickly apportioned to the e2e project manager. Concerns of such nature can be overcome by ensuring that accountabilities and responsibilities are clearly laid out at the inception of the project. Executives should be held accountable for the realization of the benefits, whereas the e2e project manager is accountable for the delivery of outcomes and capabilities. The project steering committee should oversee that accountability is correctly assigned and should intervene if any deviation is noticed.
In summary, the appointment of an e2e project manager is essential to ensure that an e2e project is delivered successfully. It is up to executives to decide which approach they should employ when faced with the challenges of e2e projects.
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Abid Mustafa is a seasoned professional with 18 years of experience in the IT and telecommunications industry, specializing in enhancing corporate performance through the establishment and operation of executive PMOs and delivering tangible benefits through the management of complex transformation programs and projects. Currently, he is working as a director of corporate programs for a leading telecoms operator in the MENA region.