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Author: Leonardo Chaves

Innovation and The New Stakeholders

In today’s world, the question is not whether or not to be innovative, but to what degree or stage.

Organizational Structures and / or individuals’ arrangements for conducting innovation processes are a form of communication of the company regarding the level of priority and strategic importance that these elements occupy. The stakeholders of innovation projects may include educational institutions, ICT’s basic industrial infrastructure, technology companies clusters, suppliers, users, innovation systems, government, financial markets, legal systems, development agencies, business systems, among others. Added to this is the example of the industrial revolution in which the political and economic environment were factors in encouraging innovation.

In general, project management methodologies deal with stakeholder management. The PMBOK 5ed. It presents a set of identification, planning, management and control of the level of stakeholder engagement. The SCRUM reinforces the importance of the relationship between the stakeholders with frequent meetings. Prince2 underscores the importance of your engagement. Particularly in the field of innovation, stakeholder engagement and engagement (fully identified) is critical to project success.

The innovation depends on the technological capacity of the organization. The technological capacity is related to a set or stock of resources based on technological knowledge. Often companies derive mechanisms of technological learning. The form and speed with which companies build and accumulate technological capacity directly impacts on their competitiveness. Some questions are relevant in the assessment of technological capacity and innovation:

  • Where are we in terms of technological capacity?
  • How long does it take to get here?
  • How long are we “stationed” at a given level of capacity for a specific technological function?
  • How far are we from the technological frontier?
  • Where do we want to be until year x?
  • What are the resources and how do you manage them to reach a level of technological capacity in x years?

Technology capability and technology are developed within specific organizational contexts. The more complex the more difficult it is to imitate it and copy it – the source of competitive advantage. In the context of developing countries, human capital and organizational capital have greater relative importance than technical systems. According to Temaguide, “Technology Consists of knowledge and experience as well as equipment and facilities. It is software as well as hardware and it is services and systems as well as products and processes. Technology uses ideas, creativity, ingenuity, intuition, intelligence and foresight. “
Innovations in organizations can be analyzed in three dimensions: macro, meso and micro. The macro dimension refers to Short-term Indicators, S & T & I Policies, National / Regional Innovation Infrastructure, Innovation Systems, Cooperation Networks, Technological Regimes and Sector Systems, Financing Innovation (Public and Private) and the Socio-Cultural Context. The Meso Dimension is related to the Innovation Strategy, Institutional Guidelines for ICTs for Innovation, Innovative Business Models, Innovation Projects Portfolio and Organizational Structuring for Innovation. The Micro deals with Innovation Projects, the Construction of competences – individuals and groups, Technological Learning, Entrepreneurial Behavior, Financial Management of innovation.

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The organizations are immersed in contexts that act as conditioners of the innovative activity. For this, companies must take into consideration the market, the solutions, the commercial relationships, the consumer experience, among other aspects. Innovation also differs among industrial sectors (Tidd et al., 2008).

A sectoral competition pattern presents its own structural characteristics:

  • Intensity of competition;
  • Degree of concentration of production;
  • Entry barriers;
  • Exposure to international competition;
  • Regulation.

Companies demand funding for their innovation projects because of the inherent risk of these activities. Investing in development and market testing is still needed to mitigate risk. Many projects must demonstrate the impacts they can bring to the development of the business.

Investment patterns and the influence of capital differ between sectors. The key factor can be related to the understanding of internal processes and the innovation model (Stage-gates (Cooper, 1993), Clark & Wheelright, Pentathlon (Goffin and Mitchell, 2010), Hansen and Birkinshaw (2007), Docherty ))

The innovation model can also determine the inclusion of new stakeholders. The innovation models include the joint development with external partners, the use of formal networks or consortia, joint ventures, open innovation and open source. Depending on the level of influence of the partners, they will have more or less strength in relation to the project direction.

Other aspects that can be considered in the identification and engagement of stakeholders are the implementation of idea channels, use of experiments and prototypes, and control of deliveries. Additionally it is suggested to avoid believing that all ideas are within the company, letting the “owner” of the idea do project management from start to finish. This will impact the identification and management of stakeholders. It is important to the Project Manager define and select the strategy, coordinating the project management plans, specially Human Resources Management Plan and stakeholders channels.

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PMBOK- Project Management Institute. “Um Guia Do Conjunto De Conhecimentos em Gerenciamento De Projetos (Guia PMBOK): A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge – Official Portuguese Translation”, 5th Edition, PMI, 2014.

Why Do You Need to Integrate Communication?

Several project management methodologies can follow models and best practices with greater or less adherence to guides.

The project manager can focus on developing a plan to control the changes as an agile leader deals with adaptations and the inevitable changes. Also, companies have their processes of your value chain. Traditional value chains focus on internal competencies, processes, and infrastructures, products and services, channels and customers. New value chains emphasize customer needs, integrated channels, products and services, processes and infrastructure that are flexible in internal competencies.

According to Kerzner, maturity projects means the adoption of a project management methodology and its utilization consistently. The implementation of a philosophy that directs the company toward a maturity in project management and communicates this to all employees. Management processes and organizational processes support the organization to achieve its results.

People work with knowledge of the processes in which their activities are embedded. What about the processes, employees often need to know why, for whom, impacts, standards and quality of the process. It would not be different to the necessity of information about the activities and the project.

The Project Manager could analyze communication and information requirements, dealing with the different needs, concerns and expectations of stakeholders and especially the team as the project is planned and carried out. Also, the project manager should worry about the conflicting constraints of the project which includes but are not limited to scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources and risk.

Communication is critical for the project manager to be able to integrate the management processes. It also refers to the exchange of information. So communication can be thought of as a plan or organized under agile or hybrid models. Communication thought of as a project of the information exchange plan there is greater control and formality. It is to specify methods to transmit information without noise, clearly, always taking feedback from the receiver.

In an agile communication often occurs face to face between the team members, with a client, managers, business analysts, etc. which can be gathered in a single room. Real – time communications is emphasized with constant feedback and transparency. There is also the need for maturity among team members.

It is important to distinguish the integration of project management processes in an approach as guided by the PMI and the integration of other agile methodologies, for example. While agile integration is related to the leadership role within the team, process-oriented integration has the definition of process inputs and outputs within the project life cycle. This consolidates all phases of the project (initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control and closure).

Integration also involves getting all the parts of a project into a cohesive unit. Moreover, active management is the primary role of the project manager. It supports the iteration in the project and consists of making choices about where to focus resources and efforts, anticipating potential problems, treating them before they become critical and coordinating the work. The need for integration in project management is evident in situations in which individual processes interact: Cost, Time, Risks, etc.

Communication in all the methodologies upgrades the level of knowledge of all about the project. The management integration in the project also represents the balance between all areas of knowledge, according to the PMI. In high-performance teams, “leaders manage principles, and principles manage a team.” Carl Larson and Frank LaFasto (1989).

Leadership is the attribute of people, distinct from formal authority. The motivations of the project team, the project mission, the leadership skills and the context within which the leadership process is exercised are highlighted. Additionally, motivation (high or low) and competence (high or low) should be analyzed. Leadership also relates to the Development Team, Motivation, Communication, Influence, Decision Making, Knowledge and Cultural and Trading. It is a broad subject and involves a substantial body of knowledge that is not limited to the context of projects that have been investigated as a skill to develop.

It is up to the project manager to make an analysis of the project stakeholders and communication requirements. These requirements result in the information needs of stakeholders and are defined by combining the type and format of information required with an analysis of the value of such information.

The necessary information may include organizational charts, project organization, responsibilities among stakeholders, internal and external information needs, departments involved, etc. Additionally, it is recommended that the “bad news” should be shared and the number of participants in a project that determines the number of communication channels. It is natural to have a larger number of participants in a project greater scope.

A critical component of project communications planning is determining and limiting who will communicate with whom and who will receive what information as the project manager integrates the processes and the project takes place.

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